Many others received state aid after being deemed “too big to fail” meaning that if they went under they would significantly damage the wider banking industry and economy. Under the rules, banks are required to have a capital buffer of at least 7 percent of their assets on a risk-weighted basis to protect them from further financial and economic shocks. They must also have enough liquid assets to survive market upsets of up to 30 days, known as the liquidity coverage ratio. EU banks grossly under capitalized: Pro David Buik,Market Commentator Panmure Gordon & Co says many of Europe’s banks are grossly under capitalized. However, the Basel III rules have sparked concern that the new capital limits might cause banks to lend less, which could lead to businesses and families turning to unregulated “shadow banks” for credit. Last month, the Bank of England said it would reduce the level of required liquid asset holdings by 90 billion once the country’s eight largest banks and building societies had met the 7 percent capital threshold. “That will help to underpin the supply of credit, since every pound currently held in liquid assets is a pound that could be lent to the real economy,” the central bank’s governor Mark Carney said in a speech. Julian Franks, a professor of finance at the London Business School (LBS) who gave evidence to the Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards, last week criticized the measures. “We know Basel I and Basel II didn’t work – and there is a fear that Basel III will go the same way,” he told CNBC. “Some of these regulations are incredibly complex. It is understood by some lawyers but not understood by bankers. That’s why people want very simple leverage ratios to be imposed.
First, the prioritization of research over teaching and learning, which has led to research being interpreted as the defining characteristic of academic excellence, needs a sound rebalancing. Second, given the importance of teaching, faculty members require training to teach at a high professional standard. And third, all higher-education institutions should embrace teaching as a core mission to enable people to learn. The reports 16 recommendations include a mandatory certified training for professors and other higher-education teaching staff, more focus on helping students to develop entrepreneurial and innovative skills, and the creation of a European Academy of Teaching and Learning. There are also recommendations urging higher-education institutions and national policy makers to work in partnership with students to establish counseling, guidance, mentoring, and tracking systems to help students as they make their way into higher education, and then on to graduation and beyond. And there is support for the development and adoption of a holistic internationalization strategy as an integral part of the overall mission. The European Commission is to be commended for this report. There is lots of good stuff in it that needs to be said at a government level. But will there be actions to back up the words? The impetus for the report comes from an effort to modernize higher education, which was part of the Europe 2020 plan to make Europe a smart, sustainable, and inclusive economy. Accordingly, education and research received a considerable boost in the recently approved E.U. budget for 2014 to 2020. The program for education, training, and youth will receive approximately $20.2-billion in 2014-20. This represents almost double the current $11.9-billion for 2007-13. However, in contrast, the research budget is likely to rise to almost $95-billion, up from $68-billion. Since 1984, over $249-billion will have been invested in research. True, many of the reports recommendations do not require large amounts of additional expenditure, as Androulla Vassiliou, the E.U.